Supply of Human Resources; Workforce Planning:

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Identify the constraints and opportunities provided by demographic change.

NET BIRTH RATE:
- high net birth rates will mean a larger supply of labor for the country in the long-term

NET IMMIGRATION RATE:
- if positive, the supply of human resources will increase

RETIREMENT AGE:
- the higher the retirement age, the larger the workforce
- countries with a large elderly population may have a higher retirement age
- countries with no statutory retirement age also increases their supply of labor

FLEXIBILITY OF THE WORKFORCE:
- countries with a multi-skilled population will have more flexible supply of labor that can quickly change to needs of a business

UNEMPLOYMENT:
- high unemployment means high potential supply of labor

WOMEN:
- growing trends with female works increases the supply of human resources

MOBILITY OF LABOR:
- the more mobile the workers, the higher the supply of labor

Case Study:
- In Canada, the largest population group is the "Baby Boomer" generation
- Baby Boomers currently hold the largest number of jobs
- As the Baby Boomer population ages, the rapid rates of retirement will cause many industries (particularly in the health and education sectors) to have labor shortages
- Immigration Policies have been altered so that workers from outside of Canada can replace the Baby Boomers in their retirement
http://www.thestarphoenix.com/opinion/Justifiable+policy+immigration+stress+economy/4292541/story.html?cid=megadrop_story

Discuss the significance of changes in labour mobility, both domestic and international.

GEOGRAPHICAL MOBILITY: (International)
OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY: (Domestic)
- ability for workers to move to different locations
- Limitations include:
• Friends & Family Ties
• Relocation costs
• Language & Cultural Differences
• Fear of the Unknown
- flexibility of workers to change to a different job
- Limitations include:
• Skills & Education
• Age (younger population more willing to change)
• Over-specialization
• Discrimination
Compare present human resources with future requirements and evaluate strategies for developing future human resources.
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Recruitment, Appraisal, Training, & Dismissal (Redundancies/ Retrenchment/Lay-off):

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Describe methods of recruitment, appraisal, training and dismissal.

RECRUITMENT:
Interviews
- purpose is to find best candidate for vacant position
- drawbacks: time consuming process, abilities not tested, can be unreliable if candidate lies

Testing
- psychometric: personality, motivation
- aptitude: general skills (typing, problem solving, reasoning)
- intelligence: numeracy, literacy, general knowledge
- trade: specific skills related to job (voice testing for radio and TV newsreaders)
- advantages: reduce costs if wrong applicant is hired; disadvantages: still time-consuming

References
- written statements from an independent source
- ensures information about applicant is correct and truthful

APPRAISAL:
Upwards
- subordinate assesses performance of someone more senior than themselves
- drawbacks: subjective in nature, subordinates may lack expertise

Essay
- written statement describing specific weaknesses, strengths, and strategies for overcoming shortcomings
- advantages: flexible, a record can be kept; disadvantages: time-consuming, difficult medium of comparison

360 Degree
- collect opinions, constructive feedback from people who have direct contact with appraisee
- drawbacks: uses subjective opinions rather than factual evidence

Rating System
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Discuss advantages and disadvantages of different methods of recruitment, appraisal and training.


Advantages
Disadvantages
Internal Recruitment
- cost effective in advertising
- applicants already well-adapted to business culture
- less risks
- encourage employee commitment
- limited applicants
- another vacant position needs to be filled
- no new ideas are cycled into the business
- internal politics
External Recruitment
- new ideas are brought into the business
- larger applicant pool
- time consuming
- expensive
- greater degree of uncertainty



Changing Employment; Patterns & Practices:

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Describe reasons for changes in work patterns and practices and the consequences of these changes for employers and employees, for example, working from home, teleworking and flexitime.