Communication = transfer of information from one party to another

purpose: instruct, clarify, interpret, notify, warn, receive feedback, review & inform.

effective communication outcome-->
1. staff aware of their roles & expectations
2. managers able to gather feedback from all different stakeholders, and act


Internal or External
Oral: Involves parties talking and listening to one another. E.g. When people discuss problems, oral presentations
(+) quick gather feedback & information, direct contact, no cost
(--) time consuming, doubtful content, no permanent record
Written: Communications made via paper-based methods. e.g. Letters, memo
Visual: Using visual aids to carry message. E.g. bar charts.
(+) communicate ideas quicker, long lasting impact, cheaper, easier understood
(--) storage space, unclear message cause delays
Non-verbal: Includes written and visual communication

Channel of communication (method)

Formal: All official channels of communication.
E.g. when managers deliver messages to their subordinates
Informal: All unofficial channels of communication.
I.e. "gossips in the workplace"
(+) sense of belonging, security and mutual support, pooling of ideas leading to discussion
(--) can be hindrance to efficiency and productivity
Information & Technology: communication done through internet.
E.g. fax, emails, phone calls

(Ways to determine choice of communication methods)personal aspect, business organization aspect
1. personal preferences -
most comfortable ways of discussing ideas/ talking
2. organization structure -
requirement for sophisticated & formal system (tall)
3. security issues & concerns -
hard copy of important record in case of computer problems
4. skills & training -
training vs. usage of equipment
5. size of business -
determine quickest way of communication with least miscommunication
6. storage -
requirement of permanent record
7. urgency -
time & speed
8. cost - $$$$
cheaper in comparison

Barriers to effective communication:
--> Barriers that reduce the efficiency and effectiveness of communication

Computer failure caused by virus
Attitude (poor or injustice)
Language barriers (accents, jargon)
Internal politics
Geographical location & culture
Presentation skills (poor)
High Cost
Negative body language
Physiological barriers
Chinese whispers (hierarchical structure)

Information and communication technology (ICT)

1. Electronic mail (email)
--> process of using computer wide area networks as mailing system
--> require modem for data conversion & telephone lines for transmitting the data
(+) all data in electronic form => fast method
large quantities data transmitted in short time
sent to many different recipients @ same time
Saves on telephone, fax bills & stationery costs
(-) high set up costs for purchase of computer & other peripherals
Ongoing cost of using internet service provider
Data not always secure (telephone system can be hacked)
Communication failure once computer system& network 'crash'

2. Facsimile (fax)
--> print hard copy of converted electronic form of text & images
(+) quick & convenient method
can be use even if receiver is not present
(-) nowadays less popular due to lower cost and more convient of emails

3. Video-conferencing
--> an example of oral communication under the use of ICT
--> combination of telephone, computer, video technology
--> Allows people to talk & see each other
--> can be used as interviewing overseas recruits
(+) meeting with staff from different location --> cut costs & travel time
filmed conversations can be use as future references
after initial start up cost: quicker and cheaper
(-) video conferencing systems--> expensive to set up
over-reliance on technology--> meetings difficult to conduct
small time lag between sending & receiving messages

4. Telephones & mobile phones
--> popular due to fast method of reaching other people
--> technological process further popularized (camera & digital music)

ICT --> faster yet cheaper communication over long distances
--> need to purchase & maintain expensive equipment
--> business heavily reliance on ICT: failure of equipment things come to a halt